25i - New Psychedelic Drug of Abuse That Has the Potential for Overdose
25I is a drug that we've become aware of in recent months as an increasing number of patients in our rehab are reporting that they have experimented with it.
There have already been 25-I deaths this year in Minnesota, North Dakota, California and North Carolina. But the death of Little Rock-native Clayton Otwell, 21, at New Orleans' Voodoo Festival was the first confirmed 25-I death in Louisiana.
According to witnesses, after only one drop was placed in his nose, Otwell immediately started babbling incoherently. Within 30 minutes, he had a seizure and never regained consciousness. He died Tuesday after being put on life support at Tulane University Hospital.
The Louisiana State Crime Lab has confirmed three samples of 25-I since May 2012. But Greenstein told reporters there are "likely more cases we don't know about." The problem of synthetic drugs in Louisiana goes back more than two years.
Starting in 2009, emergency room doctors began alerting officials to the prevalence of new chemical drugs never before seen in the state. After police also began noting a "very high volume of complaints" to state poison control centers, health officials took note.
Lab tests then revealed the synthetic drugs to be "bath salts" - a methamphetamine-like narcotic made notorious after a Miami man attacked a homeless man in May. Although the man was later proven to not be under the influence of bath salt, the incident nonetheless brought the drug national attention.
We're still gathering information on 25i and we are sorting out the confusion between 25i and some other hallucinogenic drugs that have been hitting the market but here is what we know for sure:
Here is what we're trying to confirm:
- it is a hallucinogenic drug that is usually snorted as a powder, but has the risk for overdose as several teens have been rushed to hospitals around the country.
- 25i appears to be "legal" as it is a new drug (but may be no safer than other "legal" highs like bath salts)
- 25i may be also referred to as: Dime, 25C, NBOME, DOB
(but some of those names might be for different although similar hallucinogenic drugs
25i is a derivative of the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2C-I, discovered at the Free University of Berlin in 2003 by Ralf Heim.We've been told anecdotally that 25i is not active orally and must be smoked or snorted. There's some conflicting information out there with regard to this as there are many pictures on the web of 25i that look like LSD tabs (which may be an inaccurate labeling of LSD blotter paper, but also may indicate that 25i can be taken orally).The research we've done appears to show it as a powder that is darkly colored- possibly distributed in capsules.The picture to the right of 25i is from Erowid,org, which is a pretty reliable source of information about new drugs.25i has been in the news sporadically this year and throughout the world as well. A man got in trouble with the authorities in New Zealand for selling a drug which he marketed as Dime. That drug contained 25C-NBOMe, which is an analog (a modified version) of a Class Ad Drug called "DOB.
According to the wikipedia article about 25i, the result
Breakout of Overdoses in Richmond Virginia
- Strong open-eye/closed-eye hallucinations
- Feelings of profoundness similar to other psychedelics
- Increased sexual desire
- Feelings of euphoria
- Intensified emotions
There were five overdoses that were treated in one weekend, in Richmond, Va. Some of the patients that were treated experienced side effects such as
- seizure activity
- inability to correctly perceive time
- bleeding in the brain
- heart failure
In short, people are ironically better off taking the illegal versions of hallucinogens like LSD (acid) or mushrooms. The list of side effects for the overdoses in Richmond is a scary one - particularly bleeding in the brain and heart failure
For more information on this topic contact ATG @ 205-933-0609.
Marijuana Legislation in Colorado, Washington and Massachusetts
by Aaron Atkinson on November 8, 2012
Presidential and state representatives weren’t the only things on the ballot this month. In Colorado, Washington, Massachusetts, Oregon and Arkansas the issue of ‘marijuana legalization’ was also opened up to state voters.Colorado and Washington passed measures to legalize marijuana use by adults. A similar measure was rejected in Oregon. Massachusetts became to 18th state to enact legislation for the “medical” use of marijuana, while Arkansas voters rejected such a proposal.As a result of a 53 to 47 percent vote, Colorado became the first state to end marijuana prohibition. Since federal laws that classify marijuana as an illegal drug remain unchanged, the impact and implications of the Colorado vote are yet to be determined. Regarding the impact this law has on employers, Section 16(6)(a) states that, “Nothing in this section is intended to require an employer to permit or accommodate the use, consumption, possession, transfer, display, transportation, sale or growing or marijuana in the workplace or to affect the ability of employers to have policies restricting the use of marijuana by employees.”Washington voters passed regulations to tax the sale of small amounts of marijuana to adults 21 years old or older from licensed retailers. The new state regulation also makes it legal to possess small amounts of marijuana and certain quantities of ‘marijuana products.’Because of the conflicts between the Controlled Substance Abuse Act and the new state regulations, we expect more developments over the coming weeks. As updates come available, we will continue to pass along this important industry information.
POSSIBLE CHANGES IN DRUG TESTING COMING
2/5/2012 - SMHSA Approval of DTAB Recommendations
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) announced last week that it has accepted the recommendations of its technical advisory committee, the Drug Testing Advisory Board (DTAB), and will proceed with revisions to the DHHS Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs. The changes will include: (1)
expanding the drug testing panel to include additional Schedule II prescription medications (e.g. hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone) prescription painkiller opioid drugs, and (2)
including oral fluid as an alternative specimen for Federal DFWP testing. The additions of testing for prescription medications and having oral fluid as a specimen for drugs of abuse testing are seen as measures to strengthen the existing federal drug abuse prevention and control programs. ( For a copy of the announcement click here
Jeffrey M. Morrison
Executive Director of SAPAA
New Laws Banning Synthetic Marijuana Coming
ST. LOUIS — Seated at a hookah lounge in the Tower Grove district, Albert Kuo trained his lighter above a marbleized glass pipe stuffed with synthetic marijuana. Inhaling deeply, Mr. Kuo, an art student at an area college, singed the pipe’s leafy contents, emitting a musky cloud of smoke into the afternoon light.
Mr. Kuo, 25, had gathered here with a small cohort of friends for what could be the last time they legally get high in Missouri on a substance known popularly as K2, a blend of herbs treated with synthetic marijuana. “I know it’s not going to kill me,” said Mr. Kuo, who likened the drug’s effects to clove cigarettes. “It’s a waste of time, effort and money to ban something like this.” On Tuesday, Gov. Jay Nixon, a Democrat, signed a bill prohibiting possession of K2. Missouri is the nation’s eighth state this year to ban the substance, which has sent users to emergency rooms across the country complaining of everything from elevated heart rates and paranoia to vomiting and hallucinations. Investigators blame the drug in at least one death, and this month, Gov. Mike Beebe of Arkansas, a Democrat, signed an emergency order banning the substance. Similar prohibitions are pending in at least six other states, including Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, New Jersey, New York and Ohio, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. “It’s like a tidal wave,” said Ward Franz, the state representative who sponsored Missouri’s legislation. “It’s almost an epidemic. We’re seeing middle-school kids walking into stores and buying it.” Often marketed as incense, K2 — which is also known as Spice, Demon or Genie — is sold openly in gas stations, head shops and, of course, online. It can sell for as much as $40 per gram. The substance is banned in many European countries, but by marketing it as incense and clearly stating that it is not for human consumption, domestic sellers have managed to evade federal regulation. “Everybody knows it’s not incense,” said Barbara Carreno, a spokeswoman for the federal Drug Enforcement Administration. “That’s done with a wink and a nod.” First developed in the lab of a Clemson University chemist, John W. Huffman, K2’s active ingredients are synthetic cannabinoids — research-grade chemicals that were created for therapeutic purposes but can also mimic the narcotic effects of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. In a statement, Mr. Huffman said the chemicals were not intended for human use. He added that his lab had developed them for research purposes only, and that “their effects in humans have not been studied and they could very well have toxic effects.” Nevertheless, pure forms of the chemical are available online, and investigators believe that many sellers are buying bulk quantities, mixing them with a potpourrilike blend of herbs and labeling the substance K2. “It’s not like there’s one K2 distributor — everybody is making their own stuff, calling it K2 and selling it, which is the most unnerving aspect,” said Dr. Christopher Rosenbaum, an assistant professor of toxicology at the University of Massachusetts who is studying the effects of K2 in emergency room patients. The American Association of Poison Control Centers reports that so far this year there have been 567 K2-related calls, up from 13 in 2009. But investigators add that no one is really certain what is in K2, and people are arriving at emergency rooms with symptoms that would not normally be associated with marijuana or a synthetic form of the drug. “I don’t know how many people are going for a box of doughnuts after smoking K2, but they’re sure getting some other symptoms,” said Dr. Anthony Scalzo, a professor of emergency medicine at the St. Louis University who first reported a rise in K2-related cases and is collaborating with Dr. Rosenbaum in researching K2’s effects. “These are very anxious, agitated people that are requiring several doses of sedatives.” Dr. Scalzo, who is also the medical director for the Missouri Poison Control Center, added that although tests had found cannabinoids in K2, it was unclear “whether the reaction we’re seeing is just because of dose effect, or if there’s something in there we haven’t found yet.” That question remains at the center of an investigation into the death of David Rozga, an Iowa teenager who last month committed suicide shortly after smoking K2. Mr. Rozga, 18, had graduated from high school one week earlier and was planning to attend college in the fall. According to the police report, Mr. Rozga smoked the substance with friends and then began “freaking out,” saying he was “going to hell.” He then returned to his parents’ house, grabbed a rifle from the family’s gun room and shot himself in the head. “There was nothing in the investigation to show he was depressed or sad or anything,” said Detective Sgt. Brian Sher of the Indianola Police Department, who led the investigation. “I’ve seen it all. I don’t know what else to attribute it to. It has to be K2.” But many users say they are undaunted by reports of negative reactions to the drug. K2 does not show up on drug tests, and users say that while they would like to know what is in it, they would take their chances if it means a clean urine test. The Missouri ban, which goes into effect Aug. 28, prohibits several cannabinoids that investigators have found in K2 and related products. Nevertheless, investigators and researchers say that bans like the one in Missouri are little more than “Band-Aids” that street chemists can sidestep with a slight alteration to a chemical’s molecular structure. “Once it goes illegal, I already have something to replace it with,” said Micah Riggs, who sells the product at his coffee shop in Kansas City. “There are hundreds of these synthetics, and we just go about it a couple of them at a time.” Investigators say that a more effective ban might arise once the Drug Enforcement Administration completes its review of cannabinoids, placing them under the Controlled Substances Act. Currently, however, only one such substance is controlled under the act, though the agency has listed four others as “chemicals of concern.” “It’s hard to keep up with everything,” said Ms. Carreno of the D.E.A., adding, “The process of scheduling something is thorough and time consuming, and there are a lot of gifted chemists out there.” Meanwhile, states are largely on their own when it comes to controlling this new breed of synthetic cannabis, which often comes down to a game of cat-and-mouse where law enforcement agents, politicians, users and their families must formulate new responses as each iteration of a drug comes to market. “Where does a parent go to get answers?” asked Mike Rozga, who said he learned of K2 only after his son’s death. “We talk to our kids about sex. We talk to our kids about drugs, and we talk to our kids about drinking and being responsible. But how can you talk to your kids about something you don’t even know about?”
U.S. scheduled passenger airlines employed 2.9 percent fewer workers in January 2010 than in January 2009, the 19th consecutive decrease in the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reported today (Tables 1, 2). FTE calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.
BTS, a part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, reported that the January FTE total of 379,500 for the scheduled passenger carriers was 11,200 below that of January 2009 and the lowest total for any January since 1990 (Table 3). Historic employment data can be found on the BTS web site.
Five network airlines decreased employment from January 2009 to January 2010. Delta Air Lines, after completing its merger with Northwest Airlines, reported combined numbers for the first time in January (Table 9). Network airlines operate a significant portion of their flights using at least one hub where connections are made for flights to down-line destinations or spoke cities.
Southwest Airlines was the only low-cost carrier to report a decrease from January 2009 (Table 12). Regional carriers American Eagle Airlines, SkyWestAirlines, Comair, Atlantic Southeast Airlines, Pinnacle Airlines, Horizon Air, Mesa Airlines, Air Wisconsin Airlines, Mesaba Airlines, PSA Airlines, GoJet and Colgan Airlinesalso reported reduced employment levels compared to last year (Table 15).
Scheduled passenger airline categories include network, low-cost, regional and other airlines.
The seven network airlines employed 257,800 FTEs in January, 67.9 percent of the passenger airline total, while low-cost carriers employed 16.8 percent and regional carriers employed 13.8 percent (Table 4).
Delta employed the most FTEs in January among the network airlines, Southwest employed the most FTEs among low-cost airlines, and American Eagle employed the most FTEs among regional airlines. Six of the top 10 employers in the industry are network airlines (Table 6).
Beginning with October 2007 data, US Airways’ numbers are combined with numbers for America West Airlines in the network category. For previous months, America West's numbers were included with the low-cost airlines.Network Airlines
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